Project Management Models
Last updated: 2022-03-19
There are different project management models. Across this whole web
site we use the project management life cycle as presented in the
section The Fundamentals of Project Management. It is a linear process model consisting of four phases.
Project Management Process
In this picture it looks as if the four phases did not overlap. In real
life, they often do but we simplify for the sake of clarity of our
This project management process model with non-overlapping phases corresponds in fact to the waterfall model of which you find a small case study here.
Waterfall Model of Project Management
The waterfall model is based upon the principle that one phase cannot
start until the previous one is completed. For example, in a typical
construction project, we cannot start implementation phase until
approval of all planning documents is done, i.e. planning phase is
completed. In fact, to one extreme, this model does allow for
overlapping phases, in that one phase cannot be finished until the
previous one is finished.
In contrast to this linear model, we have an iterative model, the spiral model of project management.
Spiral Model of Project Management
The spiral model is based upon the principle that we go through the
different phases again and again, until we reach a certain degree of
maturity of the product to be created which e.g., a customer can accept.
It is even possible that one part of our project is still in definition
phase while another one is already in implementation phase. Typical
examples of this iterative approach would be IT
projects, i.e. the design and development of products and services in
the IT industry with its short innovation cycles and high probabilities
of changing requirements during implementation phase. See also the
sub-section Managing IT Projects.
of our real life projects seem to be mixtures of these extreme
approaches, with some sub-projects following more the waterfall model
principles, others following more the spiral model principles.
35+ templates, tools, and checklists in one set
To save you time in your daily work as a project manager, I packaged more than 35 project management templates, tools, and checklists into one zip-file. You un-zip it, and you get all items in doc-format or xls-format. They strictly contain only standard Microsoft Word® or Excel® functionality, no macros, no other VBA code. You are allowed to use your own logo.
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